Publications

A trilogy of handbooks and the edited volume on progress towards good governance in Eastern Europe

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Next moves for the EaP & AA Trio: Updating, Upgrading & Wider Europe

Michael Emerson

The presentation of Michael Emerson at the 3rd Association Exchange Forum (Kyiv, November 14, 2019).

The Transport Community Treaty between the EU and the Western Balkans: overview and relevance to the Eastern Neighbourhood

Vitaliy Kravchuk

The new patchwork politics of Wider Europe

Richard Youngs

Political developments across the Wider Europe space increasingly blur the line between European Union and other countries. Trends in democracy have in recent years become more varied and do not divide neatly along a line between EU states and non-EU…

Focus Group No. 4 - Financial markets

Michael Emerson, Veronika Movchan, Dumitru Pintea, Lali Gogoberidze

In March 2019 we began a series of monthly focus group meetings on key aspects of the Association Agreements and DCFTAs between the EU and Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine. Focus group sessions are held in each of the three capitals with a range of stakeholders…

Transdniestria Today

Thomas de Waal

A final political solution of the conflict over Transdniestria remains elusive and dependent on wider geopolitical trends. However, in contrast to other conflicts, it is peaceful, there are substantial people-to-people contacts and also economic convergence…

Focus Group No. 3 - Sanitary and Phyto-Sanitary regulations (SPS)

Michael Emerson, Veronika Movchan, Vadim Gumene, Lali Gogoberidze

In March 2019 we began a series of monthly focus group meetings on key aspects of the Association Agreements and DCFTAs between the EU and Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine. Focus group sessions are held in each of the three capitals with a range of stakeholders…

Is it a new Moldova? Event report

Mridvika Sahajpal

Mridvika Sahajpal On July 15, CEPS hosted Moldovan Foreign Minister and former CEPS researcher Nicu Popescu in house for an event giving an account of the new politics of Moldova following a major constitutional crisis, and an unexpected coalition…

Focus Group No. 2 – Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT)

Michael Emerson, Veronika Movchan, Vadim Gumene, Lali Gogoberidze

In March 2019 we began what will be a series of monthly focus group meetings on key aspects of the Association Agreements and DCFTAs between the EU and Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine. Focus group sessions will be held in each of the three capitals with…

Abkhazia Today

Thomas de Waal

Abkhazia has grown more internationally isolated and dependent on Russia over the last decade. This report, the third in a series in which CEPS looks at four of the conflicts around unrecognized and breakaway territories in Russia’s periphery, looks…

South Ossetia Today

Thomas de Waal

South Ossetia has all but disappeared from international view since the Georgia-Russia conflict of 2008. This study—the second in a series in which CEPS is looking at four of the conflicts around unrecognized and breakaway territories in Russia’s periphery—examines…

Avant-garde, Core EU and Wider Europe

Michael Emerson

Avant-garde and Core EU are familiar terms in European discussions about the future of Europe. There is a dynamic process under way, with an increasing competences conducted by an Avant-garde groups responsible for the Euro, Schengen and defence, alongside…

Comparing gender gaps in Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine. A preliminary quantitative analysis of gendered datasets

Michael Emerson, Loes Debuysere, Kirsten Devlieger

This paper investigates different types of gender gaps that exist in the perceptions and participation of Moldovan, Georgian and Ukrainian citizens in the political, social and economic realms. The aim of this preliminary study is to not only analyse…

Focus Group No. 1 – DCFTA trade policy issues

Veronika Movchan, Vadim Gumene, Lali Gogoberidze

In March 2019 we began what will be a series of monthly focus group meetings on key aspects of the Association Agreements and DCFTAs between the EU and Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine. Focus group sessions will be held in each of the three capitals with…

Transformation of Sanitary and Phyto-Sanitary measures under Moldova’s DCFTA with the European Union

Tatiana Savva

Moldova engaged in an unprecedented process of economic restructuring by signing with the European Union the Association Agreement and the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement (DCFTA), where agriculture is one of the priority intervention areas,…

DCFTA’s Implications for Foreign Trade of the Transnistrian Region

Vadim Gumene

The purpose of this document is to provide a better understanding of the nature and magnitude of the processes taking place in the field of foreign trade of the Transnistrian region following the implementation of the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade…

The State of the Donbass: A Study of Eastern Ukraine’s Separatist-held Areas

Nikolaus von Twickel

The conflict in Donbass, which is entering its sixth year, is among Europe's biggest security challenges. This study offers a first comprehensive political, economic and societal assessment of the "People's Republics" of eastern Ukraine, on which information…

Scenarios for a Wider Europe

Michael Emerson

This paper makes the case for enhancing the economic and political integration of the entire wider European space with the EU, involving all those neighbouring states willing to subscribe to EU standards while at the same time facilitating the EU’s…

EU-Ukraine Association Agreement: Values can(not) be spread on bread, or how the Agreement has become a handbook for all

Yevhenii Konovalov

3DCFTAs Youth Essay Competition – Prize winner.

Future of Association Agreements in Moldova, Ukraine and Georgia: local, European and Russian factors

Denis Cenusa

3DCFTAs Youth Essay Competition – Prize winner.

A Story of Dreamy Hope

Nadiia Dovbush

3DCFTAs Youth Essay Competition – Prize winner.

The EU as a choice of values

Mykhailo Mosora

3DCFTAs Youth Essay Competition – Prize winner.

Landscaping IPR Chapters of the EU’s new generation FTAs: Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine

Anastasiia Kyrylenko

3DCFTAs Youth Essay Competition – Prize winner.

EU – The guarantor of Moldovan economic and business prosperity

Augustin Ignatov

3DCFTAs Youth Essay Competition – Prize winner.

Tracking the EU-Georgia Association Agreement Harmonization Progress in the Waste Management Sector

Natalia Davlianidze

3DCFTAs Youth Essay Competition – Prize winner. The following essay examines the progress of the Republic of Georgia in the application of the EU Directives on Waste Management under the EU-Georgia Association Agreement. The…

Deepening EU-Georgian Relations: What, why and how? Second edition

Michael Emerson, Tamara Kovziridze

This Handbook, now in its second edition, represents the most comprehensive and independent assessment of the Association Agreement and Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area (DCFTA) between the EU and Georgia. It is one of a Trilogy of Handbooks,…

Deepening EU-Moldovan Relations: What, why and how? Second edition

Michael Emerson, Denis Cenusa

This Handbook, now in its second edition, represents the most comprehensive and independent assessment of the Association Agreement and Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area (DCFTA) between the Moldova. It is one of a Trilogy of Handbooks,…

Deepening EU-Ukrainian Relations: What, why and how? Second edition

Michael Emerson, Veronika Movchan

This Handbook, now in its second edition, represents the most comprehensive and independent assessment of the Association Agreement and Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area (DCFTA) between the EU and Ukraine. It is one of a Trilogy of Handbooks,…

The Struggle for Good Governance in Eastern Europe

Michael Emerson, Veronika Movchan, Denis Cenusa, Tamara Kovziridze

This book contains the first comprehensive and independent comparative assessment of the fundamental political challenges facing Georgia,…

Mission to Tunisia: Lessons from the three East European DCFTAs

Veronika Movchan, Tamara Kovziridze, Adrian Lupusor

On June 25-29, several team members of the 3dcftas.eu project – Tamara Kovziridze from Reformatics (Georgia), Adrian Lupusor and Vadim Gumene from Expert-Grup (Moldova), and Veronika Movchan from the IER (Ukraine) – and Valery Piatnitsky, former Chief…

In the EU’s Eastern Partnership, Western Dissension Opens Doors for Putin

Denis Cenusa

While the West continues to support efforts to democratize the countries of the Eastern Partnership (EaP), shifting international trends threaten to slow the momentum. Increasing confrontation among Western leaders—evidenced, inter alia, by the outbreak…

Oligarchic regimes in Moldova and Georgia, two different approaches from EU

Denis Cenusa

Admitting that the political systems in the region are under the constant influence of oligarchs is essential for identifying correct solutions and for preventing the copying of practices by Moldovan oligarchs from Georgian and Ukrainian ones or vice…

Political and Economic Governance in the Balkans and Eastern Europe Compared

Michael Emerson, Gergana Noutcheva

The not-yet EU member states of the Balkans and three states of Eastern Europe – Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine – have much in common: geographic proximity to the EU, political priority to become members of the EU, and similar struggles to improve their…

Deterioration of EU-Moldova dialogue and calculations of Moldovan government

Denis Cenusa

The suspension of budget support is among the most robust reactions that the EU can have, repeating practically the situation of 2015, when the European assistance intended for Moldova was for the first time frozen...

Invalidation of elections in Chisinau, government scenarios and EU reaction

Denis Cenusa

The given situation creates a new opportunity for the EU to make use of the political preconditions that were overlooked when the government introduced the mixed electoral system...

Prospects for ‘Lisbon to Vladivostok’: Limited by a double asymmetry of interests

Michael Emerson

Since the question of the EU opening official relations with the Eurasian Economic Union may soon become more topical, it is worthwhile considering the politics and economics of a hypothetical agreement. But on both accounts, there are basic difficulties…

Integrity on Trial: Judicial reform in Georgia, Ukraine and Moldova

Steven Blockmans, Nadejda Hriptievschi, Viacheslav Panasiuk, Ekaterine Zguladze

Under the terms of their Association Agreements with the EU, Georgia, Ukraine and Moldova are expected to strengthen the independence of the judiciary, establish zero tolerance of corruption in the legal profession, and reform legislation regarding…

Diagnosis of oligarchy in Moldova, Ukraine and Georgia and de-oligarchization solutions

Denis Cenusa

The European integration and related reforms can play a very important role in the de-oligarchization of the given countries, but without success if the “checks and balances” system is not restored and made to work...

The Strategic Potential of the Emerging Wider European Economic Area

Michael Emerson

Independent evaluations of the current European Neighbourhood Policy are highly critical, and have not been dissipated by a recent review of the policy. At the same time, however, a new reality has emerged, which might be called the Wider European…

Incomplete Hegemonies, Hybrid Neighbours: Identity games and policy tools in Eastern Partnership countries

Andrey Makarychev

This paper applies the concepts of hegemony and hybridity as analytical tools to help understand the structural changes taking place within the Eastern Partnership (EaP) countries and beyond. The author points to the split identities of many post-Soviet…

The Eurasian Economic Union’s problematic customs union

Michael Emerson, Veronika Movchan

The Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) established in 2015 initially by Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan, and joined by Armenia and Kyrgyzstan, is in principle a customs union, with a common trade policy towards third countries. It has established…

Essay on Society, Ukraine, Europe

Anastasiia Menshykova

3DCFTAs Youth Essay Competition – Prize winner.

Future of DCFTA: Georgia’s Prospects for Deeper Integration in European Single Market

Elene Panchulidze

3DCFTAs Youth Essay Competition – Prize winner. Executive Summary. The Association Agreement (AA), including its integral component on a Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area (DCFTA), between the European Union and…

Ukraine after Ratification of the Association Agreement

Svitlana Zub

3DCFTAs Youth Essay Competition – Prize winner.

EU - eventual rescue of Moldova from uncertainty

Victoria Romanov

3DCFTAs Youth Essay Competition – Prize winner.

Democracy and Its Deficits: The path towards becoming European-style democracies in Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine

Denis Cenusa, Ghia Nodia, Mikhail Minakov

Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine are three participating states of the European Partnership that have chosen to conclude…

Future of EaP and Moldova following Brussels Declaration – between pragmatism and local realities

Denis Cenusa

"The EU’s hesitations will cost a lot and will result in the loss of the public support needed to exert down-up high-quality pressure on the authorities and to ensure irreversible positive changes in Moldova and the region..."

EU-Armenian Relations: Charting a fresh course

Richard Giragosian

The EU-Armenia Comprehensive and Enhanced Partnership Agreement (CEPA), initialled in March 2017, presents a fresh start for the deepening of relations between the two parties in the wake of Armenia’s abortive Association Agreement and related Deep…

Anti-Corruption Policies in Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine

Michael Emerson, Tamara Kovziridze, Nadejda Hriptievschi, Oleksandr Kalitenko, Elena Prohnitchi

Anti-corruption policy has in recent years become a well-structured subject, thanks to the work of several international organisations and NGOs. This provides a robust basis for inter-country comparisons, the present article taking the cases of Georgia,…

Should Ukraine aim to join the EU’s customs union?

Michael Emerson, Veronika Movchan

This note takes up the question how possibly to build on Ukraine’s Association Agreement (AA) and Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area (DCFTA) with the EU through some fresh initiative to give renewed political and economic momentum to Ukraine’s…

The Pan-Euro-Mediterranean Convention on Preferential Rules of Origin and its Benefits: A Comparative Analysis of its application for Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine

Tamara Kovziridze, Veronika Movchan, Michael Emerson, Vadim Gumene

The present article explains ‘diagonal cumulation’ and its benefits under the Pan-Euro-Mediterranean (PEM) Convention on the rules of origin, as will be applied by the three DCFTA states, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine. The article argues that for countries…

The Donbass Blockade: Another blow to the Minsk peace process

Artem Remizov

The Minsk peace process that was set up to address the Ukraine crisis has had a bumpy ride from the start. The current conflict has its origins in the Kremlin’s reaction to the Euromaidan revolution in Ukraine: Russia annexed Crimea in March 2014 and…

Georgia-China FTA: A side effect of the EU-Georgia DCFTA?

Tamara Kovziridze

The present article analyses the content of the recently concluded free trade agreement between Georgia and China and places it in a broader framework of economic relations between the two countries. Since recently China is among Georgia’s top three…

Demystifying the Association Agreement Review of the Trilogy of Handbooks: on the EU’s AA and DCFTAs with Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine

Kataryna Wolczuk

This paper reviews the three Handbooks on the Association Agreement between Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine, respectively. It examines the role of the Association Agreements in the Europeanisation of the three countries. The paper draws attention to the…

A Comparative study of the Association Agreements and DCFTAs concluded with Ukraine, Moldova and Georgia

Guillaume Van der Loo

This paper compares the three Association Agreements (AAs) and Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Areas (DCFTAs) that the EU has concluded with Ukraine, Moldova and Georgia. In particular, the main differences in the ‘political’ and trade-related chapters…

Moldovan dairy: the difficult way towards the EU market

Valeriu Prohnitchi

The dairy industry plays an important economic and social role in the Republic of Moldova. By generating an estimated share of 12 percent of the total value-added in the Moldovan food industry, the dairy industry is an economically important sector.…

Oligarchs in Ukraine, Moldova and Georgia as key obstacles to reforms

Denis Cenusa, Wojciech Konończuk, Kornely Kakachia

The paper reviews the role of oligarchs in Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine. Oligarchy can be briefly defined as a system of governance in which a small and informal group of people, using their vast economic and financial resources, is able to control…

Priorities of Eastern Partnership until 2020 and how Moldova can benefit from these

Denis Cenusa

The Eastern Partnership, as the Association Agreement, should not be used as a screen that actually hides the ossification of the political class, erosion of democratic institutions or segregation of civil society and the mass media according to political…

The radical changes in trade structures of Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine, towards Europe, away from Russia

Michael Emerson, Tamara Kovziridze, Veronika Movchan, Vadim Gumene

With the entry into force of the EU’s Association Agreements that include Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Areas (DCFTAs) with Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine, the evolution of the trade structures of these three countries is being closely watched. However…

Participation in CSDP: An underused potential for Moldova?

Dinu Codreanu

3DCFTAs Youth Essay Competition – Prize winner. This paper looks at to what extent Moldova is involved in CSDP missions? To provide a holistic and targeted answer to this, this paper firstly identifies Moldova’s contribution…

The EU for me

Bogdan Cuza

3DCFTAs Youth Essay Competition – Prize winner. What is the European Union exactly? It might seem like a trivial question for some—“surely, we’re educated people, we know that the EU is a political and economic union of 28…

Eastern Borderlands as Europe-Makers: (How) Can neighbours redefine the EU?

Andrey Makarychev

A general and strategic effect of EU’s Association Agreements and DCFTAs with Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine has been the extension of the concept of Europe and its wider opening to neighborhoods and margins. It is on this basis that a European normative…

Might greater gender equality in senior roles help reduce corruption in Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine?

Serena Romano

Based on the definitions of “corruption” adopted by major international institutions and of “women in power” adopted by the United Nations, this note focuses on whether a larger number of women in power positions in Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine…

Exports of Ukraine to the EU in 2016

Veronika Movchan

In 2016, exports of goods from Ukraine to the EU increased by 3.7% compared to 2015 year on year (yoy), amounting to USD 13.5 bn in value. Exports to the EU performed much better than total exports. As total exports decreased by 4.6% yoy, the share…

Moldova after three years of visa-free regime with EU and new European realities

Denis Cenusa

The abolition of the visa regime for Moldovan citizens in April 2014 was one of the most palpable accomplishments of the Moldovan authorities in the European integration process. Partially, owing to this success, Moldova was considered a “success story”.…

Can Memorandum with Eurasian Union diminish Moldova’s European agenda?

Denis Cenusa

The Memorandum of cooperation, as the observer status in the Eurasian Union, which Russia is purportedly ready to offer to Moldova, can have serious medium- and long-term effects on the European integration processes in the country. Currently, these…

President Dodon’s visit to Brussels – Contemplating economic suicide

Michael Emerson, Denis Cenusa

The newly elected President of Moldova, Igor Dodon, makes his first visit Brussels on February 7th, following his first visit to Moscow in January, where he announced his wish to repeal his country’s Association Agreement with the EU and to join the…

Eastern Partnership becomes more ‘practical’. What does Moldova gain?

Denis Cenusa

A new Eastern Partnership summit will take place in Brussels in November 2017. Until then, the EU aims to obtain concrete results in its relationship with each of the Eastern Partnership (EaP) countries, based on a Plan of Action for 2017-2020. The…

EU-Armenian Relations: Seizing the Second Chance

Richard Giragosian

For much of its history, Armenia has been a prisoner of its difficult geography. Situated at a strategic crossroads, it has lost out in competition with much larger regional powers and empires, and was the victim of the first genocide of the 20th century.…

Acceleration of Transnistria’s integration into Russia: risks and advantages for DFCTA

Denis Cenusa

"The harmonization of the Transnistrian region’s legislation with the Russian one leads to the delimitation of a normative-geopolitical border on the Nistru, between the left pro-Eurasian side and the right side that is actively transposing the European…

Dilemmas of Europeanisation: Political Choices and Economic Transformations in the Eastern Partnership Countires

Denis Cenusa, Guillaume Van der Loo, Veronika Movchan

Editors: Aldis Austers, Ilvija Bruge, Andris Spruds. This book provides theoretical and practical insights of the Europeanisationn transformations taking place in the Eastern Partnership countries and discusses how the economic ties…

Deepening EU–Georgian Relations: What, why and how?

Michael Emerson, Tamara Kovziridze

The signing of the Association Agreement and DCFTA between Georgia and the European Union in 2014 was a strategic political act to deepen the realisation of Georgia’s ‘European choice’. Of all the EU’s eastern neighbours, Georgia has distinguished…

Georgia and Europe – A short guide

Michael Emerson, Tamara Kovziridze

The new relationship between Georgia and the European Union is the focus of this accessible, non-technical short guide. This relationship is based on a complex treaty: an Association Agreement with extensive political, economic and legal content, signed…

Deepening EU-Moldovan Relations: What, why and how?

Michael Emerson, Denis Cenusa

The signing of the Association Agreement and DCFTA between Moldova and the European Union in 2014 was a strategic political act to deepen the realisation of Moldova’s ‘European choice’. Of all the EU’s eastern neighbours, Moldova is objectively the…

Moldova and Europe – A short guide

Michael Emerson, Denis Cenusa

The new relationship between Moldova and the European Union is the focus of this accessible, non-technical short guide. This relationship is based on a complex treaty: an Association Agreement with extensive political, economic and legal content, signed…

Deepening EU-Ukrainian Relations: What, why and how?

Michael Emerson, Veronika Movchan

The signing of the Association Agreement and DCFTA between Ukraine and the European Union in 2014 was an act of strategic, geopolitical significance in the history of Ukraine. Emblematic of a struggle to replace the Yanukovich regime at home and to…

Ukraine and Europe – A short guide

Michael Emerson, Veronika Movchan

The new relationship between Ukraine and the European Union is the focus of this accessible, non-technical short guide. This relationship is based on a complex treaty: an Association Agreement with extensive political, economic and legal content, signed…

What impact would a pro-Russian President have on Moldova’s European agenda?

Denis Cenusa

The counteracting of the manifestations of ‘captured state’ is really possible if the post of President is won by the new political forces that sympathize with the EU. Another scenario will be favorable only to Russia, which is extremely interested…

Ukraine, Russia and the EU: Breaking the deadlock in the Minsk process

Stefan Meister

Although the Minsk process brought about a de-escalation of the conflict in Eastern Ukraine, not all of its 13 points have been implemented, including a ceasefire and withdrawal of heavy weaponry. In the absence of a military option, economic sanctions…

Environmental impact assessment in the EU as a roadmap for reforms in Ukraine

Yuliia Oharenko

This paper aims to provide an overview of the environment impact assessment system in the EU, which should help Ukrainian policy-makers to understand better the procedures as well as associated benefits and costs of the EIA model in the EU compared…

Two years since visa liberalization with EU: Advantages and risks for Moldova

The visa-free regime for Moldova took effect two years ago, on April 28. This way Moldova became the first Eastern Partnership country where the biometric passport owners can travel visa free in the Schengen Area (90 days during 180 days). Thus, the…

EU-Moldova DCFTA: assessing the impact of the liberalization of trade in services on the Moldovan economy

Valeriu Prohnițchi

The year 2014 has been a historical landmark for the Republic of Moldova, as the country has signed with the European Union the Association Agreement. The Agreement enacts a Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area (DCFTA). The free trade agreement is…

Back to direct presidential elections in Moldova: From one political crisis to another?

Denis Cenusa

Moldova, Between Protests and “State Capture”

Denis Cenusa

Barcelona Centre for International Affairs (CIDOB), Opinion №. 391. Source...

Expanding the Iasi-Ungheni pipeline to Chisinau: challenges and opportunities

Denis Cenusa, Ana Otilia Nuțu

The extension of the Iasi-Ungheni pipeline is a major objective for the Moldovan energy sector. Interconnecting Moldova with the gas market in Romania and Europe is the first step to diversify energy sources and routes, which would reduce the monopoly…

2016 already puts its mark on the economic map of Europe

Michael Emerson

The start of the year brought highly symbolic changes to the trade policy map of Europe between the EU- and Russian-led blocs, as the EU’s Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area (DCFTA) with Ukraine entered into force provisionally, while Russia moved…

An Introduction to the Association Agreements between the EU and Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine

Michael Emerson

The three Association Agreements signed between the EU and Ukraine, Moldova and Georgia in 2014 are very long and complex legal texts, incorporating ‘Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Areas’. Their immediate impact is both political and economic. Politically…

Association Agreement in the Transnistrian Region: Mission Possible?

Adrian Lupusor

The Eastern Partnership after Riga: Review and Reconfirm

The Riga Summit of 21-22 May reaffirmed the EU’s commitment to the Eastern Partnership, underlined further differentiation between the neighbours and reiterated the importance of people-to-people contacts, finds Hrant Kostanyan in this CEPS Commentary.…

A Household Energy-Saving Initiative for Ukraine

Michael Emerson, Vladimir Shimkin

The wastage of energy in the household sector in Ukraine is of huge proportions, as a result of a long history of heavily subsidised prices and lack of investment to modernise the primitive (single-pipe) plumbing systems in Soviet-era apartment blocks.…

Preventing collapse in Ukraine: The EU should finance the grass roots directly

Steven Blockmans, Daniel Gros

With the aim of averting the total collapse of the Ukrainian economy, Daniel Gros and Steven Blockmans urge the EU to offer a minimum of macro-financial assistance to improve governance, fight corruption and harmonise laws with the EU acquis, while…

Russia’s Punitive Trade Policy Measures towards Ukraine, Moldova and Georgia

Denis Cenusa, Michael Emerson, Tamara Kovziridze, Veronika Movchan

While EU and US sanctions against Russia over its aggression in Ukraine, and Russia’s counter-sanctions, are much discussed due to their evident political significance, less attention has been given to Russia’s punitive sanctions against the three…